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دانلود رایگان کتاب : Free Downloadof : Arabic Verbs & Essentials of Grammar

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دانلود رایگان کتاب Arabic Verbs & Essentials of Grammar

Arabic is relatively straightforward when it comes to tenses. Some languages have many tenses and are very specific about the time of an action and whether or not the action has been completed. Arabic grammar is vague about time and there are only two basic tenses:
•The past(or perfect)
•The present (or imperfect)
The Past
In a simple regular verb, the basic past tense will look like this:
(kataba): (he) wrote
(shariba): (he) drank
(Hamala): (he) carried
The three root letters are all followed by a vowel. In most cases this is all fat Has (kataba/Hamala), but sometimes the second vowel is a Ka Sra (shariba). (In rare cases, the second vowel is a Damma (u),but you can ignore these verbs since you are not likely to see or use them.)
If we take off the final vowel, this nƒog (“he”/“it”) part of the verb (third person masculine singular) becomes the base, or stem of the past tense.
Different endings can be added to this past stem depending on who is carrying out the action (the subject of the verb). So,nnÖnànc (kataba) is “he wrote” and Önànc (katab) is the past stem. If we add the ending o ä (tu) to the stem, it becomes oârÑnànc (katabtu) – “I wrote”; if we add Énæ (naa), it becomes ÉærÑnànc (katabnaa) – “we wrote,” etc. Here is a table showing all the endings for the past tense: ….

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