Sapienza Researchers Find the Key that Grants Iron Access to Cells
Thanks to the revolutionary technique of cryogenic electron microscopy, a group of researchers from the Sapienza “A. Rossi Fannelli” Department of Biochemistry and the [email protected] Lab observed how the mechanism through which cells incorporate iron is the same used by viruses to infect them. The results, published on Nature Communications, open the road to the development of precision drugs against viruses and tumours.
A research team, directed by Beatrice Vallone and Alberto Boffi, from the Sapienza “A. Rossi Fannelli” Department of Biochemistry and the [email protected] Lab observed for the first time the structure of the complex formed by the ferritin protein and its cellular receptor (CD17). The analysis of the ferritin-receptor complexstructure has revealed an important and previously unknown biological mechanism: the process through which iron enters into cells. The results of the study, published on Nature Communications, not only enlarge the panorama of basic scientific knowledge, but will also have important practical consequences.
The researchers discovered that the malaria plasmodium and viruses in the arenavirus and parvovirus families use the area around the iron receptor to gain access to cells and infect them. And the knowledge of this mechanism will allow researchers to devise a strategy to deceive viruses by producing small molecules that will them from identifying the free part of the receptor that allows them to bind to the cells.
The results were obtained by using cryogenic electron microscopy, a technique that allows the three-dimensional modelling of molecules with atomic details and that earned Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2017. These last-generation electron microscopes are available at Columbia University, the Advanced Science Research Center at the City University of New York and at the European Synchrotron Research Facility, where Sapienza researchers Linda Celeste Montemiglio and Claudia Testi collaborated on the research project.
The study also has another important implication for medicine: it will allow the creation of new nano-vectors for the diagnosis and cure of cancer. The Sapienza research team, in collaboration with the CNR Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, have been employing the ferritin-receptor as a “molecular key” to selectively drive anti-tumour drugs for various years, now.
“Now, the we fully understand the structure of the complex,” explains Project Coordinator Beatrice Vallone, “we will be able to develop more specific, selective and efficient therapies.”
source: Sapienza Università di Roma