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دانلود رایگان کتابOrganic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics

دانلود رایگان کتاب  Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics 

Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics-www.parsseh-jpg

Economically, the most important type of tropical fruit is the banana (Musa x paradi-
siaca L.). Marketing of bananas was begun largely by multinational companies, and
has altered in this respect little to this day. These companies often maintain a pro-
duction chain stretching from their own plantations to ripening stations at the final
ports of destination. Certain types of banana, but especially the plantain, form part
of the staple diet in many tropical countries.
Bananas grown organically have only appeared in recent years, and are invariably
intended for shipment to the European markets.
1.1. Botany
The banana belongs to the Musaceae family and includes the genera Musa and
Ensete. The economically important banana sorts belong to the Eumusa section.
The name Musa x paradisiaca is generally retained for the entire group of fruit and
cooking bananas, because many of the varieties are of a hybrid nature.
Edible bananas contain no seeds. Reproduction is carried out via its subterranean
rhizome, the shoots of which regularly forms fruitful buds. The banana plant pos-
sesses a so-called pseudo-stem, which is created by the leaf sheathes. Inflores-
cence usually begins around 7-9 months after planting, depending on climatic condi-
tions and type of soil. Parthenokarpy (unfertilised) fruits, standing together in groups (clusters), develop from the female blossoms. Seed formation is still visible in the fruit as blackened bands. The development period of the fruit can last up to ca. 3-4 months, depending on weather conditions. After the bunch has been fully formed, the parent plant dies off.

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