دانلود رایگان کتاب Greek Grammar Handout 2012
Mastery of accents comes only slowly, because their rules are complex; but you should not, in despair, just ignore them. If you ignore them, you can never pronounce Greek properly, or “hear” it in your inner ear. And then (a) memorizing inflections is far harder, and (b) again and again you miss vital information, given just by accents. E.g. μένω = “I stay”, μενῶ = “I will stay”; or e.g. ἐν = “in”, ἕν = “one thing”; or e.g. ἤν = “if”, ἥν = “whom”, ἦν = “I was”.
At first, the rules might make your head spin; but this does not last forever. If you pay close attention for just a few weeks, it all begins to seem easy.
(I) All ancient Greek words are accented (except the few listed below in § IX). They are pitch accents (see § III), but helping to fix the pitch in any word is another factor, quantity (a vowel’s length; how long it takes to say it: see § II). Unfortunately we native English speakers are insensitive to both; we tend to hear only a word’s stress. So in speaking Greek at first just stress every acute-accented or circumflex-accented syllable (but not the grave-accented: see § IV). The modern Greeks do the same (see § X).