دانلود رایگان کتاب Native Peoples of North America-Dr. Susan Stebbins
The attempt to write any book, especially a textbook, about the histories and cultures of the indigenous peoples of what is now called North America is a daunting task. It is equivalent to writing a book about the histories and cultures of the peoples of Europe, though there are some differences. For example, it is readily accepted by both scientists and the general public that fully modern humans were in
Europe well over 40,000 years ago. However, the hypothesis, based on archaeological sites in South America that fully modern humans were in the Americas 40,000 years ago is hotly debated. While there is evidence for hominidspecies (Homo hablis, Homo erectus, Neanderthals) in Europe as well as Asia and Africa, the skeleton remains of only fully modern humans, called Paleo-Indians,have been found in the Americas. While humans have not been in the Americas as long as in Africa (from whence all humans come), Europe or Asia,
archaeological evidence shows that people have been in the Americas for at least over 12,000 years.
The historical inquiry about human activity around the world is broken into two large categories: pre-historic and historic. The term proto-historic applies to a period of transition between the two. With the exception of societies like the Maya and Aztecs of Meso-America, who had written documents and historical accounts on monumental architecture well over 2,000 years ago, research about Native societies prior to 1492 is pre-historic. A number of techniques—geology,
archaeology, botany, zoology, and the oral traditions of contemporary Native societies—are used to make hypotheses about their lives before historical documents were kept. Archaeologists and historians use historical categories that are unique to the Americas: Paleo-Indian, archaic, and formative.
Paleo-Indian refers to the first migration of people to the Americas sometime prior to the last glaciation around 10,000 years ago. Archaic refers to the period from 8,000 BCE (before the common era) to 2,000 BCE when many but not all societies across the Americas developed horticulture and agriculture. The estimated development of horticulture and agriculture vary for different parts of the Americas.
The formative stage refers to the period of 1,000 BCE to 500 CE (common era) in which, in addition to horticulture/agriculture, societies developed pottery, weaving, and permanent towns with ceremonial centers. These categories and dates were first postulated in the 1950s. Contemporary archaeological data now tells us that the estimated dates of these developments can be off by 1,000 years or more. Further, the original peoples of the Americas had technology such as pottery and weaving before they developed horticulturally, if they ever did. Such technologies are not dependent on horticulture or permanent settlements. So, while these time frames are not supported by current data, the terms Paleo-Indian, archaic, and formative are still used to describe the resources strategies of American indigenous