دانلود رایگان کتاب modern spanish grammar – A practical Guide
This book is divided into two major parts: Structures and Functions.
Part A – Structures is a concise grammar of Spanish organized in the familiar traditional way, describing the forms of Spanish in turn. This section should be used for quick reference when you want to know something about a form or structure you can identify (e.g. the subjunctive forms of a particular verb, how adjectives agree with nouns, when to use seror estar, etc.).
Part B – Functions is newer in concept, and the larger of the two. It is organized
according to the kinds of things you might want to say in particular situations in
Spanish, and here you can look up such things as how to apologize, how to ask the
time, how to describe a person, etc. You will find that sometimes the same ground is covered in both parts, although it is organized in a different way (we have, however, tried to keep exact overlap between the two sections to a minimum).
You will need constantly to refer back and forth between the two parts of the book,
and so there are a lot of cross-references between them indicated in the text or by arrows in the margin. Do not be content with consulting just one section, therefore, but follow up the cross-references given – that way you will understand both the structures of Spanish and the way in which they are used. There is also an index of words and topics so that you can find information again quickly and easily.
Third person verbs, pronouns and possessive adjectives are often potentially
ambiguous in Spanish: an extreme case is su, which can mean ‘his’, ‘her’, ‘your’,
‘its’ or ‘their’. In this book we have given the most likely translation for examples
rather than the full range of options which are theoretically possible.
We have not hesitated to use traditional grammatical terms, especially in the
Structures part. It is worth spending a little time getting to grips with these:
understanding the terms will help you understand the structures better, even if they
may appear a bit daunting at first. We have described terms with which you are likely to be unfamiliar in the Glossary.