دانلود رایگان کتاب زندگی گیاهان The Life of the Plants
Living organic Nature meets us under a twofold guise. We find her in bodily forms, i.e., in plants and animals, and we observe her in phenomena, i.e., in life itself. We call living beings organisms, because they are made up of organs or instruments. Every organ, every instrument has a certain function peculiar to itself, and bears at the same time a certain relation to the general life of the whole organism. It is
impossible to study organs apart from their function, or organisms detached from their life —almost as impossible as to study a piece of mechanism and its parts without regard to their function. Who would have the patience to study the description of the parts of a mechanism, say of a clock, without any explanation of their function? Such a study would be not only tedious but fruitless. Likewise, it is
obviously impossible to become acquainted with the working of a machine without knowing its construction. It follows that the independent study of an organism from the two arbitrary points of view mentioned above, i.e., in relation to its form
and its functions, is artificial and even illogical. These artificial points of view, however, and a corresponding division of the subject, long ago became established in science. Biology, the science of living beings, was split into two branches: (1) the study of forms, called anatomy or, more generally, morphology, and (2) the study of phenomena, of life, called physiology.