Free download of : Water Hammer in Pipe-Line Systems by J. Zaruba
Any one who has once manually calculated water hammer in a rather complex pipe-line system, would be loath to repeat the experience. It is a very tedious task demanding expert knowledge. TheLnext time, he would probably resort to a computer. However, he will have to face new difficulties. As a rule, the calculation programs available at present will prove unsuitable for the particular pipe-line system to be solved. One has either to write a new program, or to modify one of the ones available. This again is time consuming, requiring not only expert knowledge concerning water hammer, but also programming and computer skills. The frequently adopted outcome of these difficulties is to not
calculate water hammer in complex pipe-line systems, but to estimate the results on the basis of the solution of a much simplified system and, at the same time, to rely on experience and good fortune.
Let us consider a pipe-line, or a pipe-line system, filled with a flowing liquid. The system may contain various devices, such as valves, pumps, reservoirs, surge tanks, air inlet valves, etc., all of which may affect the flow.
The flow of liquid in a system may be steady or unsteady. At steady flow, the fundamental values defining the flow do not vary with time. From the point of view of the problem discussed, a flow in which pressure and velocity vary irregularly due to turbulence, is also steady. At unsteady flow, its fundamental values vary with time ……