Free Download of : Structural Engineering Analysis and Design-Victor E. Saouma
Throughout antiquity, structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science. No record exists of any rational consideration, either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of structural materials. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and
experience, which were passed from generation to generation, guarded by secrets of the guild, and seldom supplemented by new knowledge. Despite this, structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids, Via Appia, aqueducs, Colisseums, Gothic cathedrals to name a few).
The first structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep, one of only two com- moners to be deified. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3,000 B.C., and yielded great influence over ancient Egypt …….