دانلود رایگان کتاب گرامر زبان فنلاندی Finnish . An Essential Grammar
The Finnish language is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family. This is quite different from the Indo-European family, to which languages such as Swedish, English, French, German, Russian, Persian and Hindi belong.
Only four of the major Finno-Ugric languages are spoken outside Russia: Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian and the Sámi (‘Lappish’) languages in the north of Finland, Norway, Sweden and the far north-west of Russia. The term ‘Lappish’ is derogatory.
The languages most closely related to Finnish are Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Ludian, Votian and Livonian, which are all spoken around the south and east of the Gulf of Finland. Of these Finnic languages Finnish and Estonian are spoken most widely. These two are so similar in grammar and vocabulary, so closely related, that after a little practice Finns and Estonians can understand each other’s languages fairly well. If we group together the other Finno-Ugric languages according to their relations to each other and to Finnish, we have the following traditional picture …